Teaching in Higher Ed Podcast #053: Peer Instruction

Last week, I did something really cool: Bonni Stachowiak interviewed me about peer instruction for her Teaching in Higher Ed podcast. I was a bit nervous about talking on the phone, knowing I would be recorded, but Bonni is so knowledgeable and friendly, it turned into a great conversation between colleagues.

Visit Podcast #053 to listen to the podcast and read Bonni’s podcast notes full of resources.

How People Learn

Early in the interview, Bonni asked about one of my blog posts where I quote How People Learn about the characteristics of experts:

  1. experts have a deep foundation of factual knowledge
  2. experts understand those facts and concepts in a conceptual framework
  3. experts organize the knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application

Here’s how I picture that conceptual framework:

Novice

Novice

Expert

Expert

It’s not enough just to teach the factual knowledge: you also have to help students build the conceptual framework and give them practice retrieving and applying the facts and concepts:

Factual knowledge

Factual knowledge

Conceptual framework

Conceptual framework

Retrieval

Retrieval

As Bonni and I discussed in the rest of the interview, peer instruction is a powerful and versatile tool for giving your students opportunities to practice thinking like experts.

Great graphics, too

Bonni pulled out a bunch of quotations and turned them into great graphics. Here are a couple of my favorites. (Thanks, Bonni, for sharing these with me!)

(Graphic by Bonni Stachowiak, Teaching in Higher Ed. Used with permission.)

(Graphic by Bonni Stachowiak, Teaching in Higher Ed. Used with permission.)

(Graphic created by Bonni Stachowiak.

(Graphic by Bonni Stachowiak, Teaching in Higher Ed. Used with permission.)

(Graphic by Bonni Stachowiak, Teaching in Higher Ed. Used with permission.)

(Graphic by Bonni Stachowiak, Teaching in Higher Ed. Used with permission.)

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Align your NSF DUE grant proposal with these 11 landmark works

I spent April 24, 2015, in two half-day presentations led by David R. Brown in the Division of Undergraduate Education at the National Science Foundation.  Special thanks to my colleague Stacey Bridges for organizing these events.

The first presentation, Dave outlined how the NSF supports innovation in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, math (STEM) education. It was a blizzard of acronyms which Dave patiently translated for us, always with a smile and a twinkle in his eye. One slide, for example, was about

NSF DUE SBIR/STTR Phase IICC

At that stage, it was all traxoline to me.

To summarize what happened in the presentation: the NSF is a complicated organization that funds billions of dollars of research ($7.2 billion this year) including research in undergraduate STEM education.

If you’re looking for a grant to study undergraduate STEM education, you should find your way to the IUSE grants (the evolution of STEP, TUES, and WIDER grants), deep within the NSF:

Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE)
grant from the
Division for Undergraduate Education (DUE)
in the
Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR)
at the
National Science Foundation (NSF)

Writing a Successful DUE Proposal

The afternoon session with Dave was full of advice for writing successful education grant proposals. He had three key messages:

First, the best professional development you can get to help you write successful grants is volunteer to be a grant reviewer.

Second, and I’ll quote Dave:

In order to maximize potential for award, follow the Program Solicitation and Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) with highest fidelity (or face RWR: return without review.)

Third, every grant writer should read and align their proposal with these 11 landmark works.

1. PCAST Report: Engage to Excel

PCAST_ReportThe President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) forecasts “a need for producing, over the next decade, approximately 1 million more college graduates in STEM fields” and makes 5 recommendations for reaching this goal:

  1. catalyze widespread adoption of empirically validated teaching practices;
  2. advocate and provide support for replacing standard laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses;
  3. launch a national experiment in post secondary mathematics education to address the mathematics preparation gap;
  4. encourage partnerships among stakeholders to diversify pathways to STEM careers; and
  5. create a Presidential Council on STEM Education with leadership from the academic and business communities to provide strategic leadership for transformative and sustainable change in STEM undergraduate education.

Source: look for full report plus an executive summary by finding the 2012 “Undergraduate STEM Education Report” at the PCAST Documents and Reports.


2. CoSTEM 5-Year Strategic Plan

CoSTEM_ReportIn May, 2013, the Committee on STEM Education (CoSTEM) within the National Science and Technology Council released, “Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education 5-Year Strategic Plan.” The report recommends 5 areas for STEM Education investment:

  1. Improve STEM instruction.
  2. Increase and sustain youth and public engagement in STEM.
  3. Enhance the STEM experience of undergraduates.
  4. Better serve groups historically underrepresented in STEM.
  5. Design graduate education for tomorrow’s STEM workforce.

Source: Look for the full Federal STEM Strategic Plan at the Office of Science and Technology Policy.


 3. DBER Report

DBER_ReportIn 2012, the National Research Council published the Discipline-Based Education Research (DBER) Report. It describes how each of the STEM disciplines can address 3 key issues:

  1. Student-centered learning strategies can enhance learning more than traditional lectures.
  2. Students have incorrect understandings about fundamental concepts.
  3. Students are challenged by important aspect of the domain that can seem easy or obvious to experts.

Source: download a copy of the DBER Report or read it online through the National Academies Press.


ReachingStudents4. Reaching Students by Nancy Kober (2015)

Dave calls this a “Follow-up to DBER Report for Practitioners” and a “How-to guide for DBER”. At the CIRTL Forum in April 2015, Myles Boylan, Lead Program Director at the NSF DUE, highlighted this report, too.

Source: download a copy of Reaching Students or read it online through the National Academies Press.


5. “The Similarities Between Research in Education and Research in the Hard Sciences” by Carl Wieman

Carl Wieman is a Nobel-prize winning physicist who’s spend the last decade researching how undergraduates learn and how to train instructors to design and teach active classes using evidence-based practices. The Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia is a fantastic resources for teaching and learning in higher education. (Full disclosure – I spent 5 years working at UBC in the CWSEI before going to the University of California, San Diego. That experience continues to be the foundation of my work.) Carl also spent time in the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the organization responsible for the PCAST Report.

Source: Wieman, C. (2014). The Similarities Between Research in Education and Research in the Hard Sciences. Educational Researcher 43 (1), pp. 12-14. doi: 10.3102/0013189X13520294


6. “Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics” by Freeman et al.

(A) In active classes, students’ grades increased by about 0.5 standard deviations — about half a grade. (B) Far fewer students fail in active classes. (Source: Freeman et al. 2014)

This landmark paper by Freeman et al. describes a meta-analysis of 225 published studies that measured student performance in traditional lecture vs. active learning classrooms. The evidence is overwhelming that active classes are more effective. As the authors put it, if this was a medical study where students in active classrooms were given an experimental treatment with the traditional, lecture-based classrooms as the control, they’d stop the study and give everybody the experimental treatment. Wired blogger Aatish Bhatia wrote a great summary of the paper and Carl Wieman published a short commentary.

Source: Freeman, S., Eddy, S.L., Miles McDonough, M., Smith, M.K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M.P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. PNAS 2014 111 (23) 8410-8415. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319030111


7. Describing & Measuring Undergraduate STEM Teaching Practices (2013)

DescribingAndMeasuring_cover
The book is the result of a AAAS/NSF meeting that drew participants from nearly 50 institutions to identify tools and techniques that can be used in describing teaching practices. It discusses five techniques that individuals or organizations can use to measure STEM teaching: faculty and student surveys, interviews, classroom observations and teaching portfolios. The best descriptions of STEM teaching typically involve the use of multiple techniques, the book concludes. (source)

Source: You can get a PDF from the meeting website (follow the “Describing and Measuring Teaching Practices” link)


8. Project Evaluation

ProjectEval2002_cover This “User-Friendly Handbook” covers

  • Evaluation and Types of Evaluations
  • Steps in the Evaluation Process
  • An Overview of Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection Methods
  • Strategies That Address Culturally Responsive Evaluation

Source: Section by section PDFs and a PDF of the entire 2002 document are available here. There’s a 2010 edition (PDF), too, but Dave didn’t mention it.


9. Center on Education and the Workforce at Georgetown University

The PCAST report, recall, calls for 1 million more college graduates in STEM fields. Not 1 million more faculty, researchers, graduate students, and postdocs but on undergraduates who will graduate and then do what? Join the workforce. The NSF is interested in funding projects that help these undergraduates prepare for those careers. These 2 reports from the Center for Education of the Workforce are resources for education researchers less familiar with life outside the ivory towers of academia.

Career and Technical Education: Five Ways That Pay Along the Way to the B.A. stem_CEWGeorgetown_cover

Source: Five Ways That Pay Along the Way to the B.A. by A.P. Carnevale, T. Jayasundera, & A.R. Hanson (2012). STEM by Anthony P. Carnevale, Nicole Smith, and Michelle Melton (2011).


10. Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Landscape

CommunityCollegeEvolving_coverRemember, the PCAST calls for an additional 1 million college graduates, not university graduates. Those of us in R1 institutions can’t forget that the teaching and learning research we carry out (ideally, with NSF support) has to be applicable to teaching and learning in 2- and 4-year colleges, too. What does that mean? How are colleges different than universities? Are there any differences in the students? These questions and more are addressed in this report prepared by Steve Olson and Jay B. Labov.

Source: Like the DBER report, this report is published by the National Academies Press and is available online in HTML and PDF.


11. Common Guidelines for Education Research and Development (2013)

CommonGuidelines_IESNSF_cover(Not to be  confused with NSF  Grant Proposal Guide (GPG). These guidelines were developed by the representatives from the Institute of Educational Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education and from the NSF. As Dave puts it, it offers guidance on building the evidence base in STEM learning, including

  • guidelines intended to improve the quality, coherence, and pace of knowledge development in STEM education
  • guidance intended for program officers, prospective grantees, and peer reviewers
  • it is not intended to be prescriptive or exhaustive

For various types of research and development, from those contributing core knowledge to those assessing implementation of interventions, the Common Guidelines describe the

  • Purpose
  • Empirical and theoretical justifications (evidence base)
  • Types of project outcomes (evidence generation)
  • Quality of evidence

Source: A PDF is available from the NSF. Here’s a FAQ about the Common Guidelines.


Remember, the goal is to align your proposal with these works (or at the very least, don’t contradict them.) Dave recommends putting them all on a USB stick and keeping them handy when writing (or reviewing) NSF DUE proposals. And once more, Dave reminds us, follow the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) “with highest fidelity.”

Good luck with your grant proposal!

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Portraits of #CIRTL15

I had the pleasure of attending the CIRTL Network‘s conference, “Preparing the Future STEM Faculty for the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Higher Education” at Texas A&M in College Station, TX on April 12 – 14, 2015.

It was a great meeting with a lively Twitter backchannel using hashtag #CIRTL15. My friend, Derek Bruff @derekbruff, archived the Twitter traffic and I’ll update this post when he shares it.

Speaking of Derek, he’s really good at drawing #sketchnotes, that is, recording  presentations in pictures and words. Here’s his summary of Anya Kamenetz’ keynote on the future of higher education.

I’m an amateur sketchnoter, too, but I’m not good enough to sketch entire presentations yet. Instead, I try to draw the people giving the presentations. I’m deliberately practicing getting better at remembering people’s names and drawing them seems to help. So, here are many of the people who spoke at #CIRTL15. I know I missed a few. And my apologies if you’re in this collection and you don’t look anything this ;) Whenever possible, I linked to their presentations, all of which are available on the CIRTL Forum website.

 

Randy Bass

Randy Bass

Randy Bass
Associate Provost and Professor of English, Georgetown University
Plenary Address: In the Crystal Ball: What will Higher Education Look Like in 2030?

Derek Bruff’s sketchnote of Randy’s presentation


Benjamin Flores

Benjamin Flores

Benjamin Flores
Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Texas at El Paso
What Do Current Demographic Trends Predict for the Students of 2030?

 


Jennifer Glass

Jennifer Glass

Jennifer Glass
Professor of Sociology, University of Texas, Austin
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty in the context of changing demographics?
The Future of the STEM Labor Force: Implications for Training and Curriculum


Peggy Shadduck

Peggy Shadduck

Peggy Shadduck
Director of the Dallas Community College District STEM Institute
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty in the context of changing demographics?
Focus on 2-Year College Students


Olufunmilayo Adebayo

Olufunmilayo Adebayo

Olufunmilayo Adebayo
Graduate Student, Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty in the context of changing demographics?
How can we effectively make mentorship and sponsorship training, a part of the graduate student experience?


GeorgeSiemens_CIRTL15

George Siemens

George Siemens @gsiemens
Executive Director of the LINK Research Lab, University of Texas at Arlington
How Do We Best Utilize the Teaching Technologies Yet to Come?

Derek Bruff’s sketchnotes of George’s presentation


Emilianne CcCranie

Emilianne CcCranie

Emilieanne McCranie
Graduate Student, Chemistry, Vanderbilt University
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty in the context of technological changes?
In Search of Experience: One graduate student’s quest for a teaching philosophy


Derek Bruff

Derek Bruff

Derek Bruff @derekbruff
Director, Center for Teaching, Vanderbilt University
Panel Moderator and Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty in the context of technological changes?
MOOCs as Networks of Local Learning Communities


Jim Julius

Jim Julius

Jim Julius @jjulius
Faculty Director of Online Education, Miracosta College
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty in the context of technological changes?
A Community College Perspective


Anya Kamenetz

Anya Kamenetz

Anya Kamenetz @anya1anya
Author and Education Reporter, NPR
Keynote: The Future of Higher Education: People, Practices, Tools (linked to Derek Bruff’s sketchnotes)


Mary Deane Sorcinelli

Mary Deane Sorcinelli

Mary Deane Sorcinelli
Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Mt. Holyoke Wiessman Center for Leadership
The Future of the Professoriate: How Must We Change?

(Derek Bruff’s sketchnotes of Mary Deane’s presentation)


Katie Kearns

Katie Kearns

Katie Kearns @kkearns23
Senior Instructional Consultant, Indiana University Bloomington Center for Teaching and Learning
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty for the changing nature of teaching positions in higher education?
Intersections of Identity and Instruction


Allison Rober

Allison Rober

Alison Rober
Assistant Professor of Biology, Ball State
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty for the changing nature of teaching positions in higher education? University


Myles Boylan

Myles Boylan

Myles Boylan @myles_boylan
Program Director, National Science Foundation
Panelist: How do we prepare future faculty for the changing nature of teaching positions in higher education? University
At the NSF, we are interested in changing graduate education for the better


Suzanne Ortega

Suzanne Ortega

Suzanne Ortega @sortegaCGS
President, Council of Graduate Schools
Closing Reflection


Bob Mathieu

Bob Mathieu

Bob Mathieu
Director, CIRTL
Closing Discussion


Crystal Dozier

Crystal Dozier

Crystal Dozier @ArchaeoCrystal
Graduate Student, Archaeology, Texas A&M University
Patterns of Efficacy of Teaching Concepts of Race in Anthropology


One last sketch. Bob Mathieu reminded us again and again about the CIRTL Mission:

To enhance excellence in undergraduate education through the development of a national faculty committed to implementing and advancing effective teaching practices for diverse learners as part of successful and varied professional careers.

With my life-long interest in astronomy and space exploration, I couldn’t help but draw a CIRTL mission patch.

A mission patch for CIRTL

What’s a mission without a mission patch?

That’s my portrait(s) of #CIRTL15. Again, my apologies if I made anyone look too old, too young, too ogre-like, too anything. And if, by chance, you see yourself here and want to use my sketch, go ahead. I’m sharing them under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 International License.

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